The researcher will often categorize qualitative data to create quantitative data that can then be analyzed using statistical methods. We end with a summary of the common characteristics of case study research and a table that brings together the fundamental elements that we found common in all case study approaches to research.
There are substantial methodological differences between these approaches. Experiments that use random assignment are stronger designs. This involves research primarily intended to develop an assessment tool meant to assess, for example, intelligence, mental illness or opinions about a specific topic.
Research can be broadly divided into two categories: The goal in case study research is to understand the boundaries of the case and the complexity of the behavior patterns of the bounded system.
This involves research primarily intended to develop an assessment tool meant to assess, for example, intelligence, mental illness or opinions about a specific topic.
Refers to consistency throughout a series of measurements. Look for any ethical problems that may arise in the design. On the other hand, STAKE takes a more flexible stance and while concerned with rigor in the processes, maintains a focus on what is studied the case rather than how it is studied the method.
Some case study research goes beyond being a type of qualitative research, by using a mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. By selecting cases strategically in this manner one may arrive at case studies that allow generalization.
He does not use the terms methodology or strategy. Research can be broadly divided into two categories: The choice of which design to apply depends on the nature of the problems posed by the research aims. In other words, the objectivity of the procedure may be judged by the degree of agreement between the final scores assigned to different individuals by more than one independent observer.
Added to worldview, strategy, and methods would be the research problem, the personal experiences of the researcher, and the audience s for whom the report will be written 5.
The researcher attempts to capture her or his interpreted reality of the case, while studying the case situationally enables an examination of the integrated system in which the case unfolds.
Design and Methods 2nd ed. This context led to a philosophical division in research approaches: For example, YIN discusses case study research and in the context of presenting case study, refers to it as a research method while emphasizing the procedures used.
Selection of cases is based on the purpose of the research and related to the theoretical propositions about the topic of interest. The Foundations of Social Research: An interpretative position views reality as multiple and subjective, based on meanings and understanding.
This involves collecting behavioral observations or survey data, without dividing participants up into groups, without any experimental manipulation, and without the objective of developing a new psychometric instrument. This conclusion seemed contradictory to Galileo.
It means how best the data collected from the samples can be utilized for drawing certain generalisations applicable to a large group from which sample is drawn. Knowledge generated from the research process is relative to the time and context of the study and the researcher is interactive and participates in the study.
While still qualitative and inductive, it was deterministic in nature with an emphasis on cause and effect, testing theories, and an apprehension of the truth BROWN, ; YIN, Good research designs reflect the settings of the investigation.
Yin 's guidelines and making positivist assumptions. A case may be of interest because it has particular features or because it is ordinary. This is qualitative research, where the data are analyzed using techniques of textual or thematic analysis.
If you are administering an experimental treatment, you are conducting experimental research. Introduction Case study research has grown in reputation as an effective methodology to investigate and understand complex issues in real world settings. Design and Methods 2nd ed.
Alternatively it may be chosen because of researchers' in-depth local knowledge; where researchers have this local knowledge they are in a position to "soak and poke" as Richard Fenno put it,  and thereby to offer reasoned lines of explanation based on this rich knowledge of setting and circumstances.
These types of case study include the following: It supports students in working with scientists and specialists at global research facilities. Critical instance case studies. Similarly, teaching case studies have become increasingly popular in science education.
Often referred to as a multiple-case study e. The subject is the "practical, historical unity" through which the theoretical focus of the study is being viewed.
These are primarily descriptive studies.Zeitschrift für Personalforschung, 26(1), 95 comprehensive and dense, and the plethora of boxes, diagrams, exercises, and exam-ples are very helpful in order to transfer the content to students.
The case study research design have evolved over the past few years as a useful tool for investigating trends and specific situations in many scientific disciplines. Box 1: The benzodiazepine study  3. The Empirical Cycle in Qualitative and Statistical Surveys One recurring statement says that qualitative research differs from quantitative research based on the iteration of data collection and analysis in one project: the qualitative researcher starts with some data collection, analyzes them, develops a hypothesis about the subject, and then samples.
Defined "Case study is defined by individual cases, not by the methods of inquiry used." (Stake,p. ) A case can be "whatever bounded system (to use Louis Smith's term) is of interest.". The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the project portfolio management in different business organizations.
Project portfolio management is seen as a holistic activity, dependent on the organization's strategy. Table 1: Case study elements and descriptors  A final, critical point when conducting case study research is the importance of careful preparation and planning, coupled with the development of a systematic implementation structure (FLYVBJERG, ; MERRIAM, ; STAKE, ; STEWART, ; YIN, ).Download